Wednesday, 29 October 2014

Dengue fever

Dengue fever:-
Dengue fever

Dengue fever:
Dengue feverDengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.
Dengue feverMillions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but thedisease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean ,asia ,pakistan etc.

Dengue feverResearchers are working on dengue fever vaccines, but the best prevention for now is to reduce mosquito habitat in areas where dengue fever is common .DF is a communicable disease.


Critical Dengue Vomiting Signs and symptoms

This signs or symptoms indicate the particular severity connected with dengue a fever

Critical stomach agony
Wintry hands and wrists and foot
Black color stools
Absolutely no Urine production considering that 4-6 hrs.

Saturday, 25 October 2014

EXERCISE & HEALTH

Health Iz Wealth ;-

Top Ten Exercise Tips 

  1. EXERCISE IST & MUST TO IMPROVE UR LIFE CYCLE ,LIFE STANDER , LIFE IMPROVEMENT & BETTER THN MEDICINES.




  2. Start Slow!  Many beginners make the mistake of doing too much when they first start out.  If you haven't worked out in a while (or ever) start with a walking program of about 20 to 30 minutes, 3 days a week. Each session, add a few minutes to your workout to progress each week.
  3. Write down your workouts every day, making notes about what you did, how you felt and how you improved since your last workout.
  4. Schedule your workouts each week, just like you would a doctor's appointment.
  5. Harass your best friend, spouse or significant other into working out with you!
  6. Every day, ask yourself how you will make your life healthier.  It can be as simple as drinking more water or parking farther away from the front door.
  7. Reward yourself!  Give yourself a massage when you reach your goals, or maybe some new workout clothes.
  8. Set daily or weekly goals.  Long term goals are great, but are so far away we often forget why we're working so hard.  To stay motivated, write down a daily or weekly goal and then follow number 7 (rewarding yourself) if you reach it.
  9. Prepare for your workout the night before by packing your gym bag or, if you work out at home, laying out your workout clothes so when you get home, you're ready to go.
  10. Eat regularly throughout the day so you don't bonk during your workout. 

Thursday, 23 October 2014

HYPER TENSION/ HTN.(HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE)


PREVENTION IZ BETTER THN MEDICINES:



HIGH-BLOOD PRESSURE :


There are eight main ways you can control your blood pressure.

They are:

1.Eat a better diet, which may include reducing salt
2.Enjoy regular physical activity
3.Maintain a healthy weight
4.Manage stress
5.Avoid tobacco smoke
6.Comply with medication prescriptions
7.If you drink, limit alcohol
8.Understand hot tub safety

      Lifestyle modifications are essential. These changes may reduce your blood pressure without the use of prescription medications. Adopting a healthy lifestyle is critical for the prevention of HBP and an indispensable part of managing it. Think of these changes as a "lifestyle prescription" and make every effort to comply with them.

Whether you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, also called hypertension, or are concerned because you have some of the risk factors for the disease, understand this: while there is no cure, high blood pressure is manageable.

 Heart-healthy lifestyle, you can:

1.Reduce high blood pressure
2.Prevent or delay the development of HBP
3.Enhance the effectiveness of blood pressure medications
4.Lower your risk of heart attack, heart disease, stroke and kidney disease

Here's how to do your part:

Be informed
Of all people with high blood pressure, over 20 percent are unaware of their condition. This symptomless disease could leave them with substantial health consequences. Are you one of them? If you don't know, see a healthcare professional to be tested.
Do your part to reach your treatment goals
There is no healthy level of high blood pressure. Don't take life-or-death chances with this disease. Instead, take responsibility! Work with your healthcare professional to determine your treatment goals and map out your best action plan for HBP prevention and management.

Stay Physically Active


Change your life and reduce your risks
Even if your blood pressure is normal (less than 120 mm Hg systolic AND less than 80 mm Hg diastolic) and your goal is prevention only, the lifestyle modifications provide a prescription for healthy living.

If your resting blood pressure falls in the pre-hypertension range (systolic - top- number between 120 and 139 mm Hg OR diastolic - bottom - number between 80 and 89 mm Hg), your doctor will recommend lifestyle modifications.


Take medication if it is prescribed for you
If your blood pressure is 140/90 or higher, your doctor will likely prescribe medication in addition to lifestyle modifications. Follow your healthcare professional's recommendations carefully, even if it means taking medication every day for the rest of your life. High blood pressure is a lifelong disease, and by partnering with your healthcare team, you can successfully reach your treatment goals and enjoy the benefits of better health.

Once your treatment program becomes routine, maintaining a lower blood pressure is easier. Remind yourself that by managing your blood pressure, you are lowering your risk of heart attack, heart failure, stroke, peripheral artery disease and kidney disease. Death rates from these diseases have decreased significantly, thanks in part to earlier and better treatment of HBP.

Wednesday, 15 October 2014

kilao ( sweet dry fruit product ) apricot &walnet seed /kernel

                    Kilao                               

Introduction :-

 GKilao is the most famous product of Punial. It is made in the tehsil Punial of District Ghizer as well as Gilgit Baltistan. There are two kinds of kilaofirst one is almond kernels and second one is apricot kernels. The ingredients of kilao are "grape juice+almond kernels and grape juice+apricot kernels"

hizer is one of the district of Gilgit Baltistan in which a very huge quantity of fruits are available. Punial is the heart of the district Ghizer Punial also means "plate of fruits". In every village of this tehsil, all type of fruits are available there.killao is local product of this areas .



1.collection matrial



·         1.collection material :-
     1.walnet seed
     2.apricot seed
     3.grap water.
     4.distal water



  


2.Procduere “-

Killao is homeo pruduct of this areas and have simple methodes for preperation .Collect dry fruotes ( apricot seed or walnet seeds) according to production quantity and etract the grape water pulps by heating .

Preperation :-

1.take walnet seed or apricot seed one by one put into grap water.
2.Dry it 3 days on sun light 
3.finishing p



Monday, 13 October 2014

POLO MATCH ,GAHKUCH G.B

GAHKUCH GHIZAR
Highlander polo club...
won semi final match 
Highlander = 5
Baseen A= 4 — with Aisar Ali Balawar and 11 others.
Highlander polo club...
won semi final match 
Highlander = 5
Baseen A= 4

Wednesday, 8 October 2014

APRICOT SEED BENEFITS

APRICOT:-

OCCURRENCE.
APRICOT occurs all the part of the world ,like usa ,uk, African ,but mostly in Asian side ,specially Pakistan in  Gilgit Provence district Ghizar & Baluchistan .the peoples of this areas known dryfrout  
Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes.

Despite serious safety concerns, apricot kernel is used for treating cancer. It is taken by mouth or given as an injection.

How does it work?


Apricot kernel contains a toxic chemical known as amygdalin. In the body this chemical is converted to cyanide, which is poisonous. There was interest in using apricot kernel to fight cancer because it was thought that amygdalin was taken up first by cancer cells and converted to cyanide. It was hoped that the cyanide would harm only the tumor. But research has shown that this is not true. The amygdalin is actually converted to cyanide in the stomach. The cyanide then goes throughout the body, where it can cause serious harm, including death.

Apricot Seeds Benefits:

1. Skin scrub:

You can get glowing skin in just 3 minutes with this delicious smoothing scrub. This will give you radiant skin as with olive or almond oil. Mix the seed oil with sugar and scrub your face to exfoliate. Do this gently for deeply cleansed skin with no impurities. This gives a glowing complexion and renewed radiance.

2. Cancer:

It is a widely known benefit of apricot seed that this contains Vitamin B17 that prevents cancer. Apricot seed oil helps to kill cancer cells immediately. This can be useful to cure bone cancer, skin cancer and cervical cancer.
3. Arthritis:
This is anti- inflammatory. It helps to reduce arthritis symptoms. This also soothes and gives you relief from the pain.

4. Colds and flu:

This helps to maintain the immune system. This strengthens your body’s ability to fight infections such as colds and flu.

5. Cooking:

Apricot seed oil is used for cooking and flavouring of traditional Italian liquor. It can also be used as a salad oil that has many health benefits.

6. Cosmetics:

Apricot seed oil contains high fatty acids, Vitamin E and A which can be used to moisturize and nourish dry and mature skin. This oil is popularly used in cosmetics like creams, soaps and skin lotions. The oil gets easily absorbed into the skin without leaving any oily residue. Hence, this is also used for massage and as sunbathing oil. You can use this as a base with other aromatherapy oils.

7. Hair health:

Massage your hair by mixing this with other oils like Amla, coconut, and olive to cure a dry and flaky scalp.  It is very good for damaged and chemically treated hair. This will restore the shine of your hair.

8. Moisturizer:


This can be used like a moisturizer for dry areas such as elbows, knees, feet and hands. This will make your skin extra soft and smooth.
9. Night oil:
This oil can give you best results when used as a night moisturizer. Mix it with any other essential oil that suits you and massage gently. Please don’t forget to cleanse and tone your face before doing this!  This will help you to get rid of clogged pores, a shiny nose and will also moisturize dry skin.

10. Skin health:

Apricot seed oil is very light and gentle on the skin. This is used to moisturize normal and oily skin. The texture of this oil is very light so it can be used as a face serum. Apricot kernel oil doesn’t give a greasy coat on application. This also rehydrates your skin.

11. Nourishes:

Natural apricot seed oil contains gamma linoleic acid that is useful to firm and tone your skin. This also contains Vitamin A and E to soothe and slow down the aging process. It has nourishing properties and an anti-inflammatory effect to soothe eczema.

Sunday, 5 October 2014

antibiotics

antibiotics 

Short Definition

Anti means against, Bio means life, Tic means Medicines/ Drugs
antibiotics means those drugs which we can use against the life of
micro-organism .

Classification

Classified Antibiotics according to their Machnism of action and their chemical structure.
1 Cell wall synthesis inhabitor .
2 Protein Synthesis inhabitor.
3 DNA RNA Synthesis inhabitor

Antibiotic Classification & Mechanism

Author: 
Topic updated on 09/24/14 3:46pm
Overview of By Mechanism
 
PENICILLINS
CEPHALOSPORINS
FLUOROQUINOLONES
AMINOGLYCOSIDES
MONOBACTAMS
CARBAPENEMS
MACROLIDES
OTHER
Natrual
First generation
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Levofloxacin (Levaguin)
Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
Norfloxacin     
 Amikacin
Gentamicin
Kanamycin
Neomycin
Tobramycin     
 Aztreonam     Ertapenem
Imienem
Meropenem     
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Dirithromycin
Erythromycin
Clindamycin     
Vancomycin
Rifampin
Doxycycline
Linezolid
Tetracycline
Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxacole
Penicillin G
Penicillin-VK
Cephalothin
Cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol)
Cephapririn
Cephalexin (Keflex)
other
Penicillinase Resistant
Second Generation
Methicillin
Nafcillin
Oxacillin
other
Cefacor
Cefotetan (Cefotan)
other
Aminopenicillins
Third Generation
AmpicillinCeftriaxone (Rocephin)
other
Fourth Generation
Cefpirome
Cefepime
Antibiotic Grouping By Mechanism
Cell Wall SynthesisPenicillins
Cephalosporins
Vancomycin
Beta-lactamase Inhibitors
Carbapenems
Aztreonam
Polymycin
Bacitracin
Protein Synthesis InhibitorsInhibit 30s Subunit
Aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
Tetracyclines
Inhibit 50s Subunit
Macrolides
Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Linezolid
Streptogramins
DNA Synthesis InhibitorsFluoroquinolones 
Metronidazole
RNA synthesis InhibitorsRifampin
Mycolic Acid synthesis inhibitorsIsoniazid
Folic Acid synthesis inhibitorsSulfonamides
Trimethoprim
Antibiotic Classification & Indications
Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
Penicillins
(bactericidal: blocks cross linking via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
Class/MechanismDrugsIndications (**Drug of Choice)Toxicity
PenicillinPenicillin G
Aqueous penicillin G
Procaine penicillin G
Benzathine penicillin G
Penicillin V
Strep. pyogenes (Grp.A)**
Step. agalactiae (Grp.B)**
C. perfringens(Bacilli)**
Hypersensitivity reaction
Hemolytic anemia
AminopenicillinsAmpicillin
Amoxicillin
Above +
↑ Gram-negative:
E. faecalis**
E. Coli**
 Above
Penicillinase-resistant-penicillinsMethicillin
Nafcillin
Oxacillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin
Above +
PCNase-producingStaph. aureus
Above +
Interstitial nephritis
Antipseudomonal penicillinsCarbenicillin
Ticarcillin
Piperacillin
Above +
Pseudomonas aeruginosa**
 Above
Cephalosporins
(bactericidal: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
1st generation Cefazolin
Cephalexin
Staph. aureus**
Staph. epidermidis**
Some Gram-negatives:
E. Coli
Klebsiella
Allergic reaction
Coombs-positive anemia (3%)
2nd generationCefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime
Above +
↑ Gram-negative
Allergic Reaction
ETOH Disulfiram reaction
3rd generationCeftriaxone
Cefotaxime
Ceftazidime
Cefepime (4th generation)
Above +
↑ Gram-negative
Pseudomonas
Allergic Reaction
ETOH Disulfiram reaction
Other Cell Wall Inhibitors
Vancomycin q
(bactericidal: disrupts peptioglycan cross-linkage)
 VancomycinMRSA**
PCN/Ceph allegies**
S. aureus
S. epidermidis
Red man syndrome
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Beta-lactamase Inhibitors 
(bactericidal: blocking cross linking)
Clavulanic Acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam
S aureus**S epidermis**E.Coli**
Klebsiella**
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Hemolytic anemia
CarbapenemsImipenem (+ cilastatin)
Meropenem
Doripenem
Ertapenem
Broadest activity of any antibiotic
(except MRSA, Mycoplasma)
AztreonamAztreonamGram-negative rods
Aerobes
Hospital-acquired infections
PolymyxinsPolymyxin B
Polymyxin E
Topical Gram-negative infections
BacitracinBacitracinTopical Gram-positive infections
Protein Synthesis Inhibition
Anti-30S ribosomal subunit
Aminoglycosides
(bactericidal: irreversible binding to 30S) q
Gentamicin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Aerobic Gram-negatives
Enterobacteriaceae
Pseudomonas
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Tetracyclines
(bacteriostatic: blocks tRNA)
Tetracycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline
Demeclocycline
RickettsiaMycoplasmaSpirochetes (Lyme's disease)Hepatotoxicity
Tooth discoloration Impaired growth
Avoid in children < 12 years of age
Anti-50S ribosomal subunit
Macrolides(bacteriostatic: reversibly binds 50S)Erythromycin
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Streptococcus
H. influenzae
Mycoplamsa pneumonia
Coumadin Interaction (cytochrome P450)
Chloramphenicol(bacteriostatic)ChloramphenicolH influenzae
Bacterial Meningitis
Brain absces
Aplastic Anemia
Gray Baby Syndrome
Lincosamide
(bacteriostatic: inhibits peptidyl transferase by interfering with amino acyl-tRNA complex)
ClindamycinBacteroides fragilis
S aureus
Coagulase-negative Staph & StrepExcellent Bone Penetration
Pseudomembranous colitis
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Linezolid
(variable)
LinezolidResistant Gram-positives
StreptograminsQuinupristin
Dalfopristin
VRE
GAS and S. aureus skin infections
DNA Synthesis Inhibitors
Fluoroquinolones
(bactericidal: inhibit DNA gyrase enzyme, inhibiting DNA synthesis)
1st generation  Nalidixic acidSteptococcus
Mycoplasma
Aerobic Gram +
PhototoxicityAchilles tendon rupture
Impaired fracture healing 
q
2nd generationCiprofloxacin
Norfloxacin
Enoxacin
Ofloxacin
Levofloxacin
As Above +Pseudomonasas above
3rd generationGatifloxacinAs above + Gram-positivesas above
4th generationMoxifloxacin
Gemifloxacin
As above + Gram-positives + anaerobesas above
Other DNA Inhibitors
Metronidazole
(bacteridical: metabolic biproducts disrupt DNA)
Metronidazole (Flagyl)AnaerobicsSeizures
Crebelar dysfunction
ETOH disulfram reaction
RNA Synthesis Inhibitors
Rifampin
(bactericidal: inhibits RNA transcription by inhibiting RNA polymerase)
RifampinStaphylococcus
Mycobacterium 
(TB) q
Body fluid discoloration
Hepatoxicity (with INH)
Mycolic Acids Synthesis Inhibitors
IsoniazidIsoniazidzTB
Latent TB
Folic acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Trimethoprim/Sulfonamides(bacteriostatic: inhibition with PABA)Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfadiazine
UTI organisms
Proteus
Enterobacter
Thrombocytopenia
Avoid in third trimester of pregnancy
PyrimethaminePyrimethamineMalaria
T. gondii
 Bacteria Overview
Gram Postive Cocci
StaphylococcusStaph. aureus
MSSA
MRSA
Staph. epidermis
Staph saprophyticus
StreptococcusStrep pneumoniae
Strep pyogenes (Group A)
Strep agalacticae (Group B)
Strep viridans
Strep Bovis (Group D)
EnterococciE. faecalis (Group D strep)
Gram Positive Bacilli
Spore FormingBacillus anthracis
Bacillus cereus
Clostridium tetani
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium difficile
Non-Spore FormingCorynebacterium diphtheriae
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram Negative Cocci
NeisseriaNeisseria meningitidis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gram Negative Bacilli
EntericsEscherichia coli
Salmonella typhi
Salmonella enteridis
Shigella dysenteriae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Serratia
Proteus
Campylobacter jejuni
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio parahaemolyticus/vulnificus
Helicobacter pylori
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacteroides fragilis
Respiratory bacilliHaemophilus influenzae
Haemophilius ducreyi
Bordatella pertussis
Zoonotic bacilliYersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia pestis
Brucella
Francisella tularensis
Pasteurella multocida
Bartonella henselae
OtherGardnerella vaginalis
Other Bacteria
MycobacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium leprae
MOTTS
SpirochetesBorrelia burgdorferi
Leptospira interrogans
Treponema pallidum
ChlamydiaceaeChlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydophila
Rickettsia
Ehrlichia
MycoplasmataceaeMycoplasma pneumoniae
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Fungus-like BacteriaActinomyces israelii
Nocardia




Wednesday, 1 October 2014

pharmacy health & medicines , Carrot Benefits,

Carrot benefits for health :-
"health is wealth"
1. Calories
A serving of carrot juice (one cup) has around 80 calories. For those who have the typical caloric intake of 2000 calories a day, this means that a cup of carrot juice will count for around 4 percent of your daily caloric intake. Because of this, carrot juice is an excellent alternative option for water as well as other juices. If you were to compare carrot juice to other options, the same amount of orange juice has 113 calories while tomato juice contains 50 calories.
2. Vitamins and Minerals
Each cup of carrot juice contains a great deal of the vitamins and minerals your body needs to ingest each day.
Vitamin A. When you have a cup of carrot juice, you are consuming 340 percent of your daily recommended dose of vitamin A.
Potassium. In addition to this vitamin, you will also get 18 percent of your recommended dose of potassium in addition to seven percent of your recommended daily value of iron.
Vitamin C. Just 100g carrot juice can contain as much as 3 milligrams of vitamin C, a vitamin that is essential for the immune system.
Vitamin E. You will also get 0.3 milligrams of vitamin E with each 100g, which is necessary for the synthesis of hormones and to maintain healthy cells.
B Vitamins. Carrot juice is also an excellent source of several B vitamins. For 100g fresh carrot juice, it provides 0.01 milligrams of vitamin B1 which is necessary for the nervous system and brain to function properly. It also contains 0.02 milligrams of vitamin B2 which is required to maintain healthy vision and metabolism.
3. Macronutrients
Carrot juice is also an excellent source of healthy amounts of micronutrients.
Fat. Fat is one of the macronutrients that it is easy to consume too much of and therefore it is good that carrot juice only contains 0.7 grams of fat for each serving of one cup of juice.
Protein. MayoClinic suggests that between 10 and 35 percent of the daily caloric intake comes from protein with variations depending on individuals. With a protein content of 1.3 grams per serving, carrot juice provides a nice low amount.
Carbs. Most daily meal plans should include between 225 and 325 grams of carbs and one serving of carrot juice will provide 18 grams of these.
medical benefits :-
1.stimulate appitite , improve digestion
 2.protection eyesight
3.prevent cancer
4.regulate blood sugar
5.skin benefits
6.lungs improve
7.liver function improvement

ANTIEMETIC DRUGS & PREGNENCY

Antiemetic drugs in Pregnancy anti   - mean =against  emet - mean =vomiting  tic     - mean =drug  Those drug which we can sued ...