Thursday, 31 December 2015

HAPPY NEW YEAR 2016

HAPPY NEW YEAR 2016 ;-

TO ALL FRIENDS , FANS CLASSMATES ,RELATIVES & COMMUNITIES WITH BEST 

WISHES. .













Tuesday, 22 December 2015

Honey & Health Benefits.





Honey & Health Benefits ;-
Importent 10 Health Benefits of Honey:
Honey iz natural product but it have lote of health benefits & medicinal usages .
1. Prevent cancer and heart disease:
Honey contains flavonoids, antioxidants which help reduce the risk of some cancers and heart disease.
2. Reduce ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders.
Recent research shows that honey treatment may help disorders such as ulcers and bacterial gastroenteritis. This may be related to the 3rd benefit…
3. Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fungal:
“All honey is antibacterial, because the bees add an enzyme that makes hydrogen peroxide,” said Peter Molan, director of the Honey Research Unit at the University of Waikato in New Zealand.
4. Increase athletic performance.
Ancient Olympic athletes would eat honey and dried figs to enhance their performance. This has now been verified with modern studies, showing that it is superior in maintaining glycogen levels and improving recovery time than other sweeteners.
5. Reduce cough and throat irritation:
Honey helps with coughs, particularly buckwheat honey. In a study of 110 children, a single dose of buckwheat honey was just as effective as a single dose of dextromethorphan in relieving nocturnal cough and allowing proper sleep.
6.eye side & weight loss ,asthma ,sexual. 
Honey has been used in medicine  at least 4000 years and is considered to affect all three of the body’s primitive material imbalances positively. It is also said to be useful useful in improving eyesight, weight loss, curing impotence and premature ejaculation, urinary tract disorders, bronchial asthma, diarrhea, and nausea.


7. Blood sugar regulation:
Even though honey contains simple sugars, it is NOT the same as white sugar or artificial sweeteners. Its exact combination of fructose and glucose actually helps the body regulate blood sugar levels. Some honeys have a low hypoglycemic index, so they don’t jolt your blood sugar. (Watch this video Sweetener Comparison where I compare Stevie, brown rice syrup, honey, molasses and agave, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each.)
8. Heal wounds and burns:
External application of honey has been shown to be as effective as conventional treatment with silver sulfadiazene. It is speculated that the drying effect of the simple sugars and honey’s anti-bacterial nature combine to create this effect.


9. Probiotic:
Some varieties of honey possess large amounts of friendly bacteria. This includes up to 6 species of lactobacilli and 4 species of bifidobacteria. This may explain many of the “mysterious therapeutic properties of honey.”









  






10. Beautiful skin:
Its anti-bacterial qualities are particularly useful for the skin, and, when used with the other ingredients, can also be moisturizing and nourishing! For a powerful home beauty treatment for which you probably have all the ingredients in your kitchen already.




Wednesday, 9 December 2015

PARACETAMOL TOXICITY

 Paracetamol Toxicity





PACETAMOL *              GENERIC-**ACETAMINOPHEN

OVERVIEW
  • Most common OD in the west
  • Hepatic metabolism
  • Following overdose glucuronidation and sulphation pathways are rapidly saturated -> increased metabolism to NAPQI (N-acetyl-P-benzoquineimine)
  • Glutathione is required to inactivate NAPQI and when levels depleted -> hepatocellular death takes place
CLINICAL FEATURES
  • overdose of > 10g or > 200mg/kg
  • doses of > 250mg/kg associated with massive hepatic necrosis and liver faillure
  • be aware of the late presenters (> 8 hours since OD and start NAC empirically)
Stage 1 (0-24hrs)
  • asymptomatic or GI upset only
Stage 2 (24-48 hrs)
  • resolution or nausea and vomiting
  • RUQ pain and tenderness
  • progressive elevation of transaminases, bilirubin, PT
Stage 3 (48-96 hrs)
  • hepatic failure (jaundice, coagulopathy, encephalopathy)
Stage 4
  • death from hepatic failure
  • normalisation of LFT’s and complete resolution of hepatic architecture by 3 months
RISK FACTORS FOR TOXICITY
Underlying hepatic impairment
  • viral hepatitis
  • alcoholic liver disease
Microsomal enzyme induction
  • phenobarbitone
  • carbamazepine
  • phenytoin
  • rifampicin
  • OCP
  • chronic alcohol ingestion
  • starvation
Acute glutathione depletion states
  • acute illness with decreased nutrient intake
  • anorexia/bulimia/malnutrition
  • chronic alcoholism
  • HIV
INVESTIGATIONS
  • paracetamol (APAP) levels:
    -> compare to Australasian nomogram (modified version of Rumack-Matthews nomogram)
    -> no role in chronic toxicity
    -> treat if above threshold @ 4 hrs
    -> a level of > 153mg/L is above treatment threshold regardless of time of ingestion
    -> NAC must be given within 8 hours of OD (if level going to take longer than 8 hours start NAC empirically)
  • transaminases: peak @ 72 hrs
  • PT: if >180 seconds on day 4 will need transplantation
  • renal failure
  • metabolic acidosis = poor prognostic marker
MANAGEMENT
Resuscitation
A: may require intubation and intubation if polypharmacy overdose and unrousable
B: lung protective ventilation
C: volume resuscitation
D: dextrose for hypoglycaemia
Evaluation
History
  • Timing
  • Quantity
  • Dose
  • Other meds
  • Psychiatric history
Examination
  • Fuliminant hepatic failure signs
  • Signs of other drug toxicity
Investigations
  • LFTs
  • paractamol level
  • urine tox
  • coag’s
  • ECG
  • lactate
  • amylase
  • blood alcohol
  • pregnancy test
  • ECG
Treatment
Specific
  • decrease absorption: activated charcoal if presented within 4 hours (controversial as if NAC given then this is a benign OD)
  • N-acetyl cystine in D5W (based on 4 hour level or empirically if > 8 hours since OD):
    -> 150mg/kg LD
    -> 50mg/kg over 4 hours
    -> 100mg/kg over 16 hours
  • can be administered at any time of presentation (up to 72 hours post ingestion with some improvement in outcome)
  • can be administered orally but efficacy reduced by 40% if given with activated charcoal
  • provides a substrate of glutathione and acts as an alternative substrate for NAPQI metabolism via the cytochrome P450 pathway
  • watch for adverse effects: rash, bronchospasm, hypotension, angioedema (antihistamines helpful and also slowing of infusion)
Liver failure management
  • don’t correct coagulopathy unless bleeding (vitamin K IV, blood products)
  • arterial ammonia (aids in prognostication: absolute level and failure to fall)
  • glucose monitoring
  • avoid hypothermia
  • reverse jugular venous saturation monitoring
  • ICP monitoring (controversial)
  • avoid hyponatraemia
  • ventilate to normocapnia
  • thiopentone and indomethacin infusions (consult with liver unit)
  • renal failure management
  • MARS therapy: some benefit shown in paracetamol OD as a bridge to transplantation
General
  • don’t give FFP until discussed with transplant unit as indicated or liver function (unless bleeding)
  • metabolic acidosis from hepatic and renal failure -> supportive care
  • withhold any renal or hepatotoxic medications
  • intubation and ventilation if indicated
  • GI prophylaxis
  • attention to pressure areas
  • feed
  • airway toilet
Disposition
  • discuss early with transplantation team (develop liver failure within 48 hours)
  • admit to medical/gastro unless requires ICU
  • will require psychiatric assessment if was an intentional overdose
Prognostication — can use the O’Grady criteria:
  • acidaemia (pH < 7.3)
  • renal impairment (creatinine > 300micromoles/L)
  • hepatic encephalopathy (grade III or IV)
  • PT > 100 seconds (INR > 6.5)
  • factor V level < 10%

Monday, 30 November 2015

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : Neutration & Childs

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : Neutration & Childs: Child  s Health & Neutration . Prevention iz better thn medicines;-_ Nearly 5.9 million children die each year due to preve...

Neutration & Childs

Child s Health & Neutration .
Prevention iz better thn medicines;-_




Nearly 5.9 million children die each year due to preventable and treatable causes, including 1 million babies who die on the day they are born. What's more, malnutrition contributes to the deaths of children and a lifetime of poor health. More than 150 million children in developing countries are malnourished.
That's why we are committed to providing HEALTH AWAIRNES & save children's lives and ensure they grow up healthy.
In 2013,  provided lifesaving treatment to 3.1 million children, including for diseases like malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea, and for acute malnutrition.


Growing Up Healthy .
Save the Children works to improve health and nutrition of mothers, newborn babies and children, with special attention to poor and vulnerable communities. We work in hard-to-reach and impoverished communities, as well as with families hard hit by natural disasters and conflict.

Balance diets more importance then medicines & treatment .
1.Balance diets take key ply in chield & older s life .
2.spacialy fruits importent  in balance diet 

Saturday, 28 November 2015

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : PHARMACIST & PHARMACY

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : PHARMACIST & PHARMACY:  Pharmacist Numbers Increase Globally, Report Finds. The number of pharmacists per head of population has increased in many count...

AMAZING HEALTH BENEFITS OF GREEN TEA

Green Tea & Health Benefits :-

Tea is considered the most consumed beverage in the world behind water, however 78% of the tea consumed worldwide is black and only about 20% is green.
green tea in a cupAll types of tea except herbal tea are brewed from the dried leaves of the Camellia sinensis bush. The level of oxidation of the leaves determines the type of tea.
Green tea is made from un-oxidized leaves and is one of the less processed types of tea (with white tea the least) and therefore contains one of the most antioxidants and beneficial polyphenols.
Green tea was used in traditional Chinese , Indian & Pakistan  medicine to control bleeding and heal wounds, aid digestion, improve heart and mental health and regulate body temperature.Recent studies have shown green tea can potentially have positive effects on everything from weight loss to liver disorders to type 2 diabetes.
Green tea, native to China , India& pakistan  has been consumed and hailed for its health benefits for centuries globally, but has only recently gained popularity in the US ,UK ets.

Possible health benefits of green tea:-

Listed below are the possible health benefits associated with green tea:
1.Cancer
According to the National Cancer Institute, the polyphenols in tea have been shown to decrease tumor growth in laboratory and animal studies and may protect against damage caused by ultraviolet UVB radiation.

Green tea is becoming increasingly popular in the US.
In countries where green tea consumption is high cancer rates tend to be lower, but it is impossible to know for sure whether it is the green tea that prevents cancer in these specific populations or other lifestyle factors.
One large-scale clinical study compared green tea drinkers with non-drinkers and found that those who drank the most tea were less likely to develop pancreatic cancer, particularly women, who were 50% less likely to develop the disease.
Studies have also shown the positive impacts of green tea on breast, bladder, ovarian, colorectal, esophageal, lung, prostate, skin and stomach cancer.
Researchers believe that it is the high level of polyphenols in tea that help kill cancerous cells and stop them from growing, however the exact mechanisms by which tea interacts with cancerous cells is unknown.
Other studies have shown a lack of preventative effects of tea on cancer. The amount of tea required for cancer-preventive effects has also varied widely in studies - from 2- 10 cups per day.
In 2005, the FDA stated that "there is no credible evidence to support qualified health claims for green tea consumption and a reduced risk of gastric, lung, colon/rectal, esophageal, pancreatic, ovarian, and combined cancers.
2.Heart Disease
A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that green tea consumption is associated with reduced mortality due to all causes, including cardiovascular disease.
The study followed over 40,000 Japanese participants between the ages of 40 and 79 for 11 years, starting in 1994.
The participants who drank at least 5 cups of green tea per day had a significantly lower risk of dying (especially from cardiovascular disease) than those who drank less than one cup of tea per day.
Another study found that consuming 10 cups of green tea per day can lower total cholesterol, however, consuming 4 cups or less had no effect on cholesterol levels.
3.Type 2 Diabetes
Studies concerning the relationship between green tea and diabetes have been inconsistent. Some have shown a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes for green tea drinkers than for those who consumed no tea, while other studies have found no association between tea consumption and diabetes at all.
4.Weight Loss
Green tea may promote a small, non-significant weight loss in overweight and obese adults; however, since the weight lost in the studies were so minimal, it is unlikely that green tea is clinically important for weight loss.
Other studies have found that green tea is helpful in preventing dental cavities, stress, chronicfatigue, treating skin conditions and improving arthritis by reducing inflammation.

Recent developments on the health benefits of green tea:-
Green tea or coffee may reduce stroke risk. Drinking green tea or coffee on a regular basis is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, according to a study published in the journal Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association.
Green tea may help fight prostate cancer. British researchers have scientifically proven that broccoli, turmeric, green tea and pomegranate help fight the most common cancer in men in the United States and the United Kingdom - prostate cancer.
Green tea may boost our working memory. New research published in the journal Psycho pharmacology suggests green tea can enhance our brain's cognitive functions, particularly the working memory.7
Green tea component upsets cancer cell metabolism. A study reveals how an active component of green tea disrupts the metabolism of cancer cells in pancreatic cancer, offering an explanation for its effect on reducing risk of cancer and slowing its progression. The researchers believe the discovery signals a new approach to studying cancer prevention.





Saturday, 31 October 2015

DIABETES MELLITUS

DEFINATION 
TREATMENT &CONTROL
TYPES/CLASSIFICATION OF   DIABETES MELITTUS  .


Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, deranged metabolism and sequelae predominantly affecting the vasculature. The main types of diabetes mellitus are:
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus: results from the body's failure to produce sufficient insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from resistance to the insulin, often initially with normal or increased levels of circulating insulin.
  • Gestational diabetes: pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy are said to have gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects about 4% of all pregnant women. It may precede development of type 2 (or rarely type 1) diabetes.
  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) includes several forms of diabetes with monogenetic defects of beta-cell function (impaired insulin secretion), usually manifesting as mild hyperglycaemia at a young age, and usually inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner.
  • Secondary diabetes: accounts for only 1-2% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Causes include:
    • Pancreatic disease: cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatectomy, carcinoma of the pancreas.
    • Endocrine: Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, phaeochromocytoma, glucagonoma.
    • Drug-induced: thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, atypical antipsychotics, antiretroviral protease inhibitors.
    • Congenital lipodystrophy.
    • Acanthosis nigricans.
    • Genetic: Wolfram's syndrome (which is also referred to as DIDMOAD: diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness),Friedreich's ataxia, dystrophia myotonica, haemochromatosis, glycogen storage diseases.
Some patients with type 2 diabetes require insulin, so the old terms of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) for type 1 diabetes and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) for type 2 diabetes are inappropriate. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents and so the old term maturity-onset diabetes for type 2 diabetes is also inappropriate.
The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is based on a combination of a genetic predisposition and an autoimmune process that results in gradual destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, leading to absolute insulin deficiency. There is usually a pre-diabetic phase where autoimmunity has already developed but with no clinically apparent insulin dependency. Insulin autoantibodies can be detected in genetically predisposed individuals as early as 6-12 months of age.
Possible triggers for the process may include viruses, dietary factors, environmental toxins, and emotional or physical stress. Early cessation of breast-feeding has also been linked to increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes, but the association is unproven and controversial.
  • Approximately 15% of those with diabetes have type 1 diabetes - usually juvenile-onset, but it may occur at any age. It may be associated with other autoimmune diseases. It is characterised by insulin deficiency.
  • There is 30-50% concordance in identical twins and a positive family history in 10% of people with type 1 diabetes. Screening for the diagnosis of diabetes in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 is therefore reasonable, keeping in mind that the absolute risk is quite low.
  • Associated with HLA DR3 and DR4 and islet cell antibodies around the time of diagnosis.
  • Patients always need insulin treatment and are prone to ketoacidosis.
  • The most at-risk population for type 1 diabetes is Caucasian of northern European ancestry. Incidence is high in Scandinavian people.

  • Approximately 85% of those with diabetes; they are usually older at presentation (usually >30 years of age) but it is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents.
  • Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess body weight and physical inactivity.
  • All racial groups are affected but there is increased prevalence in people of South Asian, African, African-Caribbean, Polynesian, Middle-Eastern and American-Indian ancestry.
  • It is caused by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance and has a gradual onset.
  • Those with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin treatment.
  • In 2011 there were 2.9 million people with diabetes. It is estimated that 5 million people will have diabetes in the UK by 2025.
  • It is estimated that there are around 850,000 people in the UK who have diabetes but have not been diagnosed.
  • The UK average prevalence of diabetes in the UK is 4.45% but there are variations between countries and regions.
  • The proportion of people with diabetes increases with age.
  • However, the incidence of diabetes is increasing in all age groups. Type 1 diabetes is increasing in children (especially those aged <5 years), and type 2 diabetes is increasing, particularly in black and minority ethnic groups.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

  • Obesity, especially central (truncal) obesity.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Ethnicity: people of South Asian, African, African-Caribbean, Polynesian, Middle-Eastern and American-Indian descent are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with the white population.
  • History of gestational diabetes.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance.
  • Impaired fasting glucose.
  • Drug therapy - eg, combined use of a thiazide diuretic with a beta-blocker.
  • Low-fibre, high-glycaemic index diet.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • Family history (2.4-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes).
  • Adults who had low birth weight for gestational age.
  • Patients with all types of diabetes may present with polyuria, polydipsia, lethargy, boils, pruritus vulvae or with frequent, recurrent or prolonged infections.
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes may also present with weight loss, dehydration, ketonuria and hyperventilation. Presentation of type 1 diabetes tends to be acute with a short duration of symptoms.
  • Presentation in patients with type 2 diabetes tends to be subacute with a longer duration of symptoms.
  • Patients with diabetes may present with acute or chronic complications, as outlined in the section 'Complications', below.
  • Diabetes may be diagnosed on the basis of one abnormal plasma glucose (random ≥11.1 mmol/L or fasting ≥7 mmol/L) in the presence of diabetic symptoms such as thirst, increased urination, recurrent infections, weight loss, drowsiness and coma.
  • In asymptomatic people with an abnormal random plasma glucose, two fasting venous plasma glucose samples in the abnormal range (≥7 mmol/L) are recommended for diagnosis.
  • Two-hour venous plasma glucose concentration ≥11.1 mmol/L two hours after 75 g anhydrous glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) now recommends that glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes. An HbA1c of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) is recommended as the cut-off point for diagnosing diabetes. A value less than 48 mmol/mol does not exclude diabetes diagnosed using glucose tests.
The management plan for a person with diabetes includes:
  • Diabetes education: structured education and self-management (at diagnosis and regularly reviewed and reinforced) to promote awareness.
  • Diet and lifestyle: healthy diet, weight loss if the person is overweight, smoking cessation, regular physical exercise.
  • Maximising glucose control while minimising adverse effects of treatment, such as hypoglycaemia.
  • Reduction of other risk factors for complications of diabetes, including the early detection and management of hypertension, drug treatment to modify lipid levels and consideration of antiplatelet therapy with aspirin.
  • Monitoring and early intervention for complications of diabetes, including cardiovascular disease, feet problems, eye problems, kidney problems and neuropathy.

Tuesday, 13 October 2015

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : PHARMACIST & PHARMACY

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : PHARMACIST & PHARMACY:  Pharmacist Numbers Increase Globally, Report Finds. The number of pharmacists per head of population has increased in many count...

Saturday, 3 October 2015

PHARMACIST & PHARMACY

 Pharmacist Numbers Increase Globally, Report Finds.



The number of pharmacists per head of population has increased in many countries around the world but there remains a shortage in low-income and middle-income nations, according to an analysis. 
Data from 51 countries showed all but three saw a rise in the number of pharmacists per 10,000 population between 2006 and 2012, found a report by the International Pharmaceutical Federation Education Initiative (FIPEd), which was published at the FIP World Congress in Dusseldorf, Germany. 
All six World Health Organization regions — Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Pan-America, South East Asia and Western Pacific — experienced an increase between 2006 and 2012. The highest relative increase was in the Western Pacific region, where pharmacist density — the number of pharmacists per 10,000 population — rose by 43.1%. 
“It is important to monitor the global pharmacy workforce so that we can make informed decisions on how best to use our pharmacists,” said Ian Bates, director of the FIPEd development team and an expert advisor to the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS). 
“There is still a need for more pharmacists; low-income and middle-income countries still have very low density compared with high-income countries. In particular, the increases we have seen may not be keeping pace with shifts in disease burden.” 
Christopher John, director of the joint FIP-RPS global workforce observatory, said: “The overall growth we have found reflects positive changes in policy and capacity building to facilitate extended roles, and a shift in focus in pharmacy to patients.” 
He added: “Pharmaceutical service development and new scope and roles for clinical pharmacy implies increased demand on the pharmacy workforce worldwide.”

ALLERGY.

Allergy & Treatment :

What is an Allergy?

An allergy is the response of the body's immune system to normally harmless substances, such as pollen, foods, and house dust mite. Whilst in most people these substances (allergens) pose no problem, in allergic individuals their immune system identifies them as a’ threat’ and produces an inappropriate response.

Allergies are classified into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated allergies. In IgE mediated allergies the immune system produces exaggerated amounts of a distinct class of antibodies known as IgE antibodies that are, specific for the particular offending allergens. These IgE antibodies bind to the surface of cells in the body called mast cells which become ‘IgE-sensitised’ such that these cells can then identify particular allergens the next time they come in contact with the body. This process is called sensitisation, and at this stage there are no physical symptoms of an allergy.

ALLERGY INCREASING .

Allergy is caused when the body's immune system reacts to a normally harmless substance, such as pollen, food, or house dust mite. The body identifies the substance as a threat and produces an inappropriate, exaggerated response to it. What we are only beginning to understand is what tips the balance in favour of allergy. Researchers have suggested that a number of factors might cause someone to become allergic:

Genetics:

Children born into families where allergies already exist have a higher than average chance of developing allergies themselves. In the UK today, children have a 1 in 5 predisposition of developing an allergy. However, the risk is doubled if one parent has an allergy (particularly if that parent is the mother). If both parents have allergies, the risk is increased to 60-80%. This increased tendency for individuals to develop allergies because of their genes is known as being atopic.

The Hygiene Hypothesis:

This suggests that the immune system needs to come into contact with a variety of micro-organisms and bacteria while it is developing at the infant stage, in order that it responds appropriately later in life. We now live in an environment where we use cleaners containing anti-microbial agents, and food preparation is more hygienic than ever. Whilst children living in farms were previously directly exposed to animals, and their environment contained a range of microbial agents and plant derived agents, most of us now live in cities where we have minimal exposure to animals. We know that children with regular contact with farm animals have a lower incidence of allergy. Inadequate exposure to environmental micro-organisms may therefore result in the immune system of atopic children developing a tendency towards allergy.

Changes in the foods we eat:

Our diets tend to include more processed foods and less fruit and vegetables. It has been suggested that the increase in food allergy might be due to more allergenic foods, such as peanut, in our diet. However, there is no evidence that this has happened, and many cultures traditionally eat high amounts of certain allergenic foods

Environmental factors:

Our environment today is very different from 50 years ago. While there is evidence that pollutants can exacerbate existing airway allergy, the question of whether pollution can cause new allergy remains controversial. One hypothesis for which there are accumulating data, is that the increase in allergy mirrors our declining exposure to bacteria and other micro-organisms in our environment. This has led to the Hygiene Hypothesis.

Conclusion

So an intriguing possibility is that many of the above dietary and environmental factors may increase allergy risk by regulating genes which promote an allergic-type immune system. Hopefully, our understanding of genetics will increase over the coming years, offering new potential strategies by which we might be able to prevent allergy.
CLASSIFICATION .

ALLERGY CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THERE DIFFERENT ACTION .
DRUG- DRUG ALLERGY 
DRUG FOOD ALLERGY 
ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGY 
GENETICALLY .
 TREATMENT .
ANTI HISTAMINE DRUGS 
STEROID DRUGS 
SYSTEMIC TREATMENT




Thursday, 1 October 2015

Water Importance

Importance of water .



water & human physiology

How Much Water Should You Drink Per Day?

Brunette Drinking From a Glass of WaterThe body is about 60% water, give or take.
We’re constantly losing water from our bodies, primarily via urine and sweat.
There are many different opinions on how much water we should be drinking every day.
The health authorities commonly recommend eight 8-ounce glasses, which equals about 2 liters, or half a gallon.
This is called the 8×8 rule and is very easy to remember.
However, there are other health gurus who think we’re always on the brink of dehydration and that we need to sip on water constantly throughout the day… even when we’re not thirsty.
As with most things, this depends on the individual and there are many factors (both internal and external) that ultimately affect our need for water.
I’d like to take a look at some of the studies on water intake and how it affects the function of the body and brain, then explain how to easily match water intake to individual needs.

Can More Water Increase Energy Levels and Improve Brain Function?

Glass of water
Many people claim that if we don’t stay hydrated throughout the day, our energy levels and brain function can start to suffer.
There are actually plenty of studies to support this.
In one study in women, a fluid loss of 1.36% after exercise did impair both mood and concentration, while increasing the frequency of headaches .
There are other studies showing that mild dehydration (1-3% of body weight) caused by exercise or heat can negatively affect many other aspects of brain function .
However, keep in mind that just 1% of body weight is actually a fairly significant amount. This happens primarily when you’re sweating a lot, such as during exercise or high heat.
Mild dehydration can also negatively affect physical performance, leading to reduced endurance .
Does Drinking a Lot of Water Help You Lose Weight?
There are many claims about water intake having an effect on body weight… that more water can increase metabolism and reduce appetite.
According to two studies, drinking 500 ml (17 oz) of water can temporarily boost metabolism by 24-30% .
The top line below shows how 500 ml of water increased metabolism (EE – Energy Expenditure). You can see how the effect diminishes before the 90 minute mark :
Graph Showing How Water Can Boost Metabolism
The researchers estimate that drinking 2 liters (68 ounces) in one day can increase energy expenditure by about 96 calories per day.
It may be best to drink cold water for this purpose, because then the body will need to expend energy (calories) to heat the water to body temperature.
Drinking water about a half hour before meals can also reduce the amount of calories people end up consuming, especially in older individuals .
One study showed that dieters who drank 500 ml of water before meals lost 44% more weight over a period of 12 weeks, compared to those who didn’t .
Overall, it seems that drinking adequate water (especially before meals) may have a significant weight loss benefit, especially when combined with a healthy diet.
Does More Water Help Prevent Health Problems?
There are several health problems that may respond well to increased water intake:
  • Constipation: Increasing water intake can help with constipation, which is a very common problem .
  • Cancer: There are some studies showing that those who drink more water have a lower risk of bladder and colorectal cancer, although other studies find no effect .
  • Kidney stones: Increased water intake appears to decrease the risk of kidney stones .
  • Acne and skin hydration: There are a lot of anecdotal reports on the internet about water helping to hydrate the skin and reducing acne, but I didn’t find any studies to confirm or refute this.
Do Other Fluids Count Toward Your Total?
Plain water is not the only thing that contributes to fluid balance, other drinks and foods can also have a significant effect.
One myth is that caffeinated drinks (like coffee or tea) don’t count because caffeine is a diuretic.
However, the studies show that this isn’t true, because the diuretic effect of these beverages is very weak (22).
Most foods are also loaded with water. Meat, fish, eggs and especially water-rich fruits and vegetables all contain significant amounts of water.
If you drink coffee or tea and eat water-rich foods, then chances are that this alone is enough to maintain fluid balance, as long as you don’t sweat much.
Bottom Line: Other beverages that you drink also contribute to fluid balance, including caffeinated drinks like coffee and tea. Most foods also contain water.

Trust Your Thirst… It’s There For a Reason

Woman Drinking Water
Maintaining water balance is essential for our survival.
For this reason, evolution has provided us with intricate mechanisms for regulating when and how much we drink.
When our total water content goes below a certain level, thirst kicks in.
This is controlled by mechanisms similar to things like breathing… we don’t need to consciously think about it.
For the majority of people, there probably isn’t any need to worry about water intake at all… the thirst instinct is very reliable and has managed to keep us humans alive for a very long time (23).
There really is no actual science behind the 8×8 rule. It is completely arbitrary.
That being said, there are certain circumstances that may call for increased water intake… that is, more than simple thirst commands.
The most important one may be during times of increased sweating. This includes exercise, as well as hot weather (especially in a dry climate).
If you’re sweating a lot, make sure to replenish the lost fluid with water. Athletes doing very long, intense exercises may also need to replenish electrolytes along with water.
Water need is also increased during breastfeeding, as well as several disease states like vomiting and diarrhea.
Older people may need to consciously watch their water intake, because some studies show that the thirst mechanisms can start to malfunction in old age .
Bottom Line: Most people don’t need to consciously think about water intake, because the thirst mechanism in the brain is very effective. However, certain circumstances do call for increased intake.

How Much Water is Best?

At the end of the day, no one can tell you exactly how much water you need. As with most things, this depends on the individual.
Do some self experimentation… some people may function better with more water than usual, while for others it only causes the inconvenience of more frequent trips to the bathroom.
That being said, I am not sure if the small benefits of being “optimally” hydrated are even worth having to consciously think about it. Life is complicated enough as it is.
If you want to keep things simple (always a good idea), then these guidelines should apply to 90% of people:
  1. When thirsty, drink.
  2. When not thirsty anymore, stop.
  3. During high heat and exercise, drink enough to compensate for the lost fluids.
  4. That’s it.