Saturday, 17 January 2015

Ebola virus outbreak

List OF  outbreaks;Ebola virus



Major or massive cases

YearCountryVirusHuman affection countHuman death countCase fatality rateDescription
1976 SudanSUDV28415153%Occurred in Nzara, Maridi and surrounding areas between June and November 1976. Mainly spread by personal contact in hospitals. Many medical care personnel were infected.
1976 ZaireEBOV31828088% Occurred in Yambuku and surrounding areas in August. Spread by personal contact and use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals/clinics.
1979 SudanSUDV342265%Occurred in Nzara, Maridi. Recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.
1994 GabonEBOV523160%Occurred in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Thought to be yellow fever until 1995.
1995 ZaireEBOV31525481%Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. Traced to index case-patient who worked in forest adjoining the city. Epidemic spread through families and hospitals.
1996 GabonEBOV372157%Occurred in Mayibout area between January and April. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill; other cases occurred in family members.
1996–1997 GabonEBOV604575%Occurred in Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville between July 1996 and January 1997. Index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. Disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.
2000–2001 UgandaSUDV42522453%Occurred in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.
2001–2002 Gabon
 Republic of the Congo
EBOV1229679%Occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo between October 2001 and July 2002. First reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the Republic of the Congo.
2002–2003 Republic of the CongoEBOV14312890%Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kéllé in Cuvette Ouest Département between December 2002 and April 2003.
2003 Republic of the CongoEBOV352983%Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette Ouest Département, between November and December.
2004 SudanSUDV17741%Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were later reclassified as measles cases.
2007 Democratic Republic of the CongoEBOV26418771%Occurred in Kasai-Occidental Province. The outbreak was declared over on November 20. Last confirmed case on October 4 and last death on October 10.
2007–2008 UgandaBDBV1493725%First recognition of BDBV. Occurred inBundibugyo District in western Uganda between December 2007 and January 2008
2008–2009 Democratic Republic of the CongoEBOV321445%Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Province of Kasai-Occidentalbetween December 2008 and February 2009
2012 UgandaSUDV241771%Occurred in the Kibaale District between June and August.
2012 Democratic Republic of the CongoBDBV773647%Occurred in Province Orientale between June and November.
2013–presentWidespread:
 Liberia
 Sierra Leone
 Guinea
Limited and local:
 Nigeria
 Mali
 United States
 Senegal
 Spain
 United Kingdom
EBOV21,3648,45971% The most severe Ebola outbreak recorded in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities began in Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013, and spread abroad where it is still ongoing.
2014 Democratic Republic of the CongoEBOV664974% Occurred in Equateur Province. Outbreak detected 24 August and according to the WHO, as of 28 October 2014 twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed.Declared over on 15 November 2014.

Minor or single cases[edit]


YearCountryVirusHuman casesHuman deathsDescription
1976 United KingdomSUDV or EBOV10Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.
1977 ZaireEBOV11Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.[
1989–1990 PhilippinesRESTV30High mortality among crab-eating macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA. Three workers in the facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.
1989 United StatesRESTV00RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases.
1990 United StatesRESTV40RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sic
1992 ItalyRESTV00RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases.
1994 Côte d'IvoireTAFV10First and thus far only recognition of TAFV. Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later, and fully recovered after six weeks.
1996 South AfricaEBOV21A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, in October 1996 after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients. He was hospitalized, and the nurse that took care of him became infected and died.
1996 United StatesRESTV00RESTV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases.
1996 PhilippinesRESTV00RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases.
1996 RussiaEBOV11Laboratory contamination.
2004 RussiaEBOV11Laboratory contamination.
2008 PhilippinesRESTV60First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.

ANTIEMETIC DRUGS & PREGNENCY

Antiemetic drugs in Pregnancy anti   - mean =against  emet - mean =vomiting  tic     - mean =drug  Those drug which we can sued ...