Friday, 20 February 2015

Monday, 16 February 2015

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : Reproductive Diseses

Health & Medicines pharmacist tips : Reproductive Diseses: Reproductive system disease A  reproductive system disease  is any  disease  of the  reproductive system . Contents 1   Types ...

Friday, 13 February 2015

DIGESTION DISEASE.


DIGESTION  DISEASE.

In humain body stomic play key rules in food digestion ,it is also c/d the store hose or disese hose.
The stomach is an important organ in the body. It plays a vital role in digestionof foods, releases various enzymes and also protects the lower intestine from harmful organisms. The stomach connects to the esophagus above and to thesmall intestine below. It is intricately related to the pancreasspleen and liver. The stomach does vary in size but its J shape is constant. The stomach lies in the upper part of the abdomen just below the left rib cage.
Gastropathy is a general term used for stomach diseases.Examples including the name include portal hypertensive gastropathy and Ménétrier's disease, also known as "hyperplastic hypersecretory gastropathy". However, there are many other stomach diseases that don't include the word "gastropathy" such as gastric or peptic ulcer diseasegastroparesis, anddyspepsia.
Many stomach diseases are associated with infection. Historically, it was widely believed that the highly acidic environment of the stomach would keep the stomach immune from infection. However, a large number of studies have indicated that most cases of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. One of the ways it is able to survive in the stomach involves its urease enzymes which metabolize urea (which is normally secreted into the stomach) to ammoniaand carbon dioxide which neutralises gastric acid and thus prevents its digestion. In recent years, it has been discovered that other Helicobacter bacteria are also capable of colonising the stomach and have been associated with gastritis.
Having too little or no gastric acid is known as hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria respectively and are conditions which can have negative health impacts. Having high levels of gastric acid is called hyperchlorhydria. Many people believe that hyperchlorhydria can cause stomach ulcers. However, recent research indicates that the gastric mucosa which secretes gastric acid is acid-resistant.
Gastritis and stomach cancer can be caused by Helicobacter pylori infection.
There are many types of chronic disorders which affect the stomach. However since the symptoms are localized to this organ, the typical symptoms of stomach problems include nausea, vomiting, bloating, cramps, diarrhea and pain.

Chronic disorders

Disorders of the stomach are very common and induce a significant amount of morbidity and suffering in the population. Data from hospitals indicate that more than 25% of the population suffers from some type of chronic stomach disorder including abdominal pain and indigestion. These symptoms occur for long periods and cause prolonged suffering, time off work and a poor quality of life. Moreover visits to doctors, expense of investigations and treatment result in many days lost from work and a colossal cost to the financial system.

Gastritis[edit]

In the stomach there is a slight balance between acid and the wall lining which is protected by mucus. When this mucus lining is disrupted for whatever reason, signs and symptoms of acidity result. This may result in upper abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and heartburn. When the condition is allowed to progress, the pain may become continuous; blood may start to leak and be seen in the stools. If the bleeding is rapid and of adequate volume it may even result in vomiting of bright red blood (hematemesis). When the acidity is uncontrolled, it can even cause severe blood loss (anemia) or lead to perforation (hole) in the stomach which is a surgical emergency. In many individuals, the progressive bleeding from an ulcer mixes with the feces and presents as black stools. Presence of blood in stools is often the first sign that there is a problem in the stomach.

Gastroparesis

Another very common long trm problem which is now more appreciated is gastroparesis. Gastroparesis affects millions of individuals and is often never suspected and most patients have a delay in diagnosis. Basically in gastroparesis, the stomach motility disappears and food remains stagnant in the stomach. The most common cause of gastroparesis isdiabetes but it can also occur from a blockage at the distal end of stomach, a cancer or a stroke. Symptoms of gastroparesis includes abdominal pain, fullness, bloating, nausea, vomiting after eating food, loss of appetite and feeling of fullness after eating small amounts of food.

Diarrhea

During digestion, food is stored in the liquid present in the stomach. The food that is not digested travels to the large intestine and colon in liquid form. These organs begin to absorb the water turning the food into a more solid form. Differentviruses or bacteria can increase the amount of liquid that is secreted and moves too quickly through the digestive tract for the water to be absorbed. Diarrhea comes in two types: acute diarrhea and chronic diarrhea. The acute diagnosis can last for a few days up to a week of time. Chronic diarrhea lasts for several days or longer periods of time lasting a few weeks. The difference in diagnosis will help determine the cause of the illness.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, even the stomach, although it's a rare presentation. Its main feature is inflammatory ulcers that can affect the total thickness of the stomach wall and can bleed but rarely perforate. Symptoms include abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Diarrhea is also a symptom that can develop, so checking stools for the appearance of blood is important. It is possible for symptoms of Crohn's Disease to remain with a person for weeks or go away on their own. Reporting the symptoms to a doctor is recommended to prevent further complications.

Cancers

Cancers of the stomach are rare and the incidence has been declining worldwide. Stomach cancers usually occur due to fluctuations in acidity level and may present with vague symptoms of abdominal fullness, weight loss and pain. The actual cause of stomach cancer is not known but has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pyloripernicious anemia, Menetriere's disease, and nitrogenous preservatives in food.

Causes and treatment

Smoking has been linked to a variety of disorders of the stomach. Tobacco is known to stimulate acid production and impairs production of the protective mucus. This leads to development of ulcers in the majority of smokers. Chronic stomach problems have also been linked to excess intake of alcohol. It has been shown that alcohol intake can cause stomach ulcer, gastritis and even stomach cancer. Thus, avoidance of smoking and excess alcohol consumption can help prevent the majority of chronic stomach disorders.
One of the most causes of chronic stomach problems is use of medications. Use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat various pain disorders can damage lining of the stomach and cause ulcers. Other medications like narcotics can interfere with stomach emptying and cause bloating, nausea, or vomiting.
The majority of chronic stomach problems are treated medically. However, there is evidence that a change in life style may help. Even though there is no specific food responsible for causing chronic stomach problems, experts recommend eating a healthy diet which consists of fruits and vegetables. Lean meat should be limited. Moreover people should keep a diary of foods that cause problems and avoid them.

Endoscopy

There are many tools for investigating stomach problems. The most common is endoscopy. This procedure is performed as an outpatient and utilizes a small flexible camera. The procedure does require intravenous sedation and takes about 30–45 minutes; the endoscope is inserted via the mouth and can visualize the entire swallowing tube, stomach and duodenum. The procedure also allows the physician to obtain biopsy samples. In many cases of bleeding, the surgeon can use the endoscope to treat the source of bleeding with laser, clips or other injectable drugs.

X rays

Other radiological studies frequently used to assess patients with chronic stomach problems include a barium swallow, where a dye is consumed and pictures of the esophagus and stomach are obtained every few minutes. Other tests include a 24-hour pH study, CT scans or MRI.


Friday, 6 February 2015

Top Super fruits List

HEALTH IS WEALTH .TOP SUPER FRUITS NEED UR HEALTH IMPROVEMENT &BALANCE DIETS .

Top Super fruits List

1)  Maqui Berry

superfruits-maqui-berry
Maqui berries (Aristotelia chilensis) are an amazing South American fruit, like the acai berry, but are native to the Patagonian mountain range of southern Chile. 
They contain tremendously high levels of antioxidants and are often used dried in powdered form in other parts of the world.  The bright purple powder is another great super fruit ingredient to include in a smoothie or raw pie recipe.

2) Camu Camu Berry

super-fruits-camu-camu-berry
Also included on our list of top 10 superfoods, this powerful berry is a tropical super fruit from the Amazon with an unmatched form of naturally occurring vitamin C.
In fact, camu camu IS the most concentrated supply of natural plant based Vit C in the world, surpassing even the acerola cherry. 
Camu maintains protective effects on the nervous system and heightens brain performance, shielding against "brain fog", dementia and reduces the build up of plaque on brain nerves, a condition associated with Alzheimer's.  
Consuming camu camu berry is known to benefit the skin, enhancing collagen levels that tighten and rejuvenate skin elasticity.

3) Durian

superfruits-durian-fruit
Durians are one of the rare fruits, aside from olives and avocados that contain the good fats along with a creamy sweet custard-like texture.  Although the fruit is not high in antioxidants, like the other superfruits, it is an excellent source of these raw fats that can fuel the body for extended periods of time.
Durian fruit (Durio zibethinus) contains high levels of the amino acid tryptophan, in addition to high levels of Vit E. It is excellent for nourishing the skin and has a well known reputation as a powerful aphrodisiac.

4) Goji Berries

top-superfruits-goji-berries
Goji berries are another superior "tonic" fruit on our top 10 superfoods list for their anti-aging effects and trademark as one of the only foods scientifically proven to promote levels of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in the body.
They have an outstanding amount of polysaccharides to help build the immune system as well as a full range of antioxidants.  Goji is also works as a adaptogen tonic and is often used in conjunction with tonic herbs to replenish deep immune health.

5) Noni Fruit

superfruits-noni-fruit
Noni fruit is a tropical fruit (Morinda citrifolia), known for it's incredible anti-inflammatory and immune boosting properties.  Noni has extremely high levels ofpolysaccharides that help to increase the ability of white blood cells to rid the body of pathogens. 
It is valued for its many unique health promoting components and is a well known treatment for skin conditions of all kinds. It is tradition to ferment noni and drink the juice, but powdered forms of noni are also available. It is helpful to consume noni as well as use it topically for skin repair and rejuvenation.

6) Schizandra Berry

super-fruits-schizandra-benefits
Schizandra (Schizandra chinensis) is one of the most common sexual tonics known in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Several months of drinking schizandra berry tea is known to provide youthful, supple glowing skin. As a famous "beauty tonic", it is said to "hold moisture within the cells of the skin."
Schizandra also works with the liver organ as a blood purifier and is a powerful restorative for the eyesight. It is especially helpful at increasing range of vision and clearing the eyes of redness.

7) Amla Berry

Amla berry, also called Indian gooseberry or amalaki, (Phyllanthus emblica or Emblica officinalis) is a tree fruit and powerful antioxidant that rejuvenates and detoxifies the body.
superfruits-amla-berries
It is considered an Ayurvedic herbworking primarily as a digestive and bowel tonic to improve "digestive fire", aid in elimination and promote a healthy intestinal tract.
Amla is known to stimulate the production and regeneration of red blood cells and is beneficial to many of the primary organs of the body.
Amalaki fruit is a great source of vitamin C and another fruit powder supplement option to consider for recharging immune health. It is specific for soothing pain caused from inflammation of the joints and great for those with autoimmune disorders.

8) Mangosteen

top-super-fruits-benefits-of-mangosteen
Mangostein or mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has become very popular in recent years due to it's level of Xanthones that occur in the outer rind of the fruit which are a super rich source of antioxidants.
Known to help everything from reducing nerve pain to lowering blood pressure, it is one of the great super fruits commonly eaten fresh in Indonesia, but mostly sold as a concentrated extract in other parts of the world.

9)  Red Jujube Dates

Red jujubee dates (Zizyphus jujube) are an Asian fruit known to "clear the 5 openings" which include the eyes, ears nose, throat and sinuses.  They are specific in Traditional Chinese Medicine for toning and purifying the stomach, the body's center and earth element. 
Jujubee's can be eaten fresh but are commonly used dried and brewed with other Chinese herbs.  They help to harmonize and balance tonic formulas and are also considered a major tonic herb.

10) Acai Berry

super-fruits-acai-powder
Acai berry is a traditional fruit of the Brazilian Amazon region.
It is a palm fruit species (Euterpe oleracea) that has been extensively researched and tested for it's long list of health benefits.
Claiming fame as a "top superfood" on the Oprah Winrey Show by Dr Perricone for a good reason, you can read more about the benefits of acai berry on the link above.

Thursday, 5 February 2015

NSAIDs DRUGS







What are NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

DEFINITION :-

SIMPLY WE CAN DEFINE THOSE DRUGS WHICH WE CAN USED FOR PAIN KILLER OR INFLAMMATION.

drugs, also known as NAIDsnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory
agents/analgesics
 (NSAIAs) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines(NSAIMs). They are medications with analgesic (pain reducing), antipyretic (fever reducing) effects. In higher doses they also have anti-inflammatory effects - they reduceinflammation (swelling). Non-steroidaldistinguishes NSAIDs from other drugs which contain steroids, which are also anti-inflammatory. NSAIDs are non-narcotic (they do not induce stupor). 

The most common NSAIDs are aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen - probably because they are available over-the-counter (OTC, no prescription required). 

NSAIDs can be used for a number of conditions. While some OTC medications, others can only be accessed with a prescription. Typically, NSAIDs are used to treat the following symptoms and conditions:
  • Pain and discomfort - for example muscle strain/sprain, headachesmigraines, and dysmenorrhea (painful cramps during menstruation).
  • Fever - NSAIDs are effective at reducing body temperature.
  • Inflammation - NSAIDs are often used for the treatment of inflammation, as may occur inrheumatoid arthritis.

  • Some other conditions - sometimes NSAIDs are recommended for the treatment of menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods).
NSAIDs may be taken:
  • Orally (by mouth) - available in tablet, capsule or liquid form.
  • Intravenously - by injection
  • Rectally - as a suppository through the rectum
  • They are also available as eye-drops
  • Topical NSAIDs also exist, which are applied directly onto the skin in the form of creams or gels.


    Types
  of    NSAIDS






NSAIDs are based on their chemical structure:
  • Propionic acid derivatives - Examples include: Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Fenoprofen, Ketoprofen, Flurbiprofen, Oxaprozin
  • Acetic acid derivatives - Examples include: Indomethacin, Sulindac, Etodolac, Diclofenac (Safety alert by FDA)
  • Enolic acid (Oxicam) derivatives - Examples include: Piroxicam, Meloxicam, Tenoxicam, Droxicam, Lornoxicam, Isoxicam
  • Fenamic acid derivatives - Examples include: Mefenamic acid, Meclofenamic acid, Flufenamic acid, Tolfenamic acid
  • Selective COX-2 inhibitors (Coxibs) - Examples include: Celecoxib (FDA alert), Rofecoxib (withdrawn from market), Valdecoxib (withdrawn from market), Parecoxib (FDA withdrawn), Lumiracoxib (TGA cancelled registration), Etoricoxib (FDA withdrawn)











ANTIEMETIC DRUGS & PREGNENCY

Antiemetic drugs in Pregnancy anti   - mean =against  emet - mean =vomiting  tic     - mean =drug  Those drug which we can sued ...